Interactions between sensory prediction error and task error during implicit motor learning. Jonathan Tsay, Adrian M. Haith, Richard B. Ivry, Hyosub E. Kim. Plos Computational Biology.

Competition between parallel sensorimotor learning systems. Scott T Albert, Jihoon Jang, Shanaathanan Modchalingam, Bernard Marius ‘t Hart, Denise Henriques, Gonzalo Lerner, Valeria Della-Maggiore, Adrian M Haith, John W Krakauer, Reza Shadmehr. (2022). eLife
11:e65361. DOI:

Dissociation between abnormal motor synergies and impaired reaching dexterity after stroke (2022). Alkis M. Hadjiosif, Meret Branscheidt, Manuel A. Anaya, Keith D. Runnalls, Jennifer Keller, Amy J. Bastian, Pablo A. Celnik, and John W. Krakauer. Journal of Neurophysiology. doi: 10.1152/jn.00447.2021

The Strength of the Corticospinal Tract Not the Reticulospinal Tract Determines Upper-Limb Impairment Level and Capacity for Skill-Acquisition in the Sub-Acute Post-Stroke Period (2021). Ulrike Hammerbeck, Sarah F. Tyson Prawin Samraj, Kristen Hollands, John W. Krakauer, and John Rothwell.  Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. doi: 10.1177/15459683211028243

De novo learning versus adaptation of continuous control in a manual tracking taskChristopher S. Yang, Noah J. Cowan, Adrian M. Haith. (2021). eLife. 10:e62578. doi: 10.7554/eLife.62578.

The proportional recovery rule redux: Arguments for its biological and predictive relevance(2021).  Jeff Goldsmith, Tomoko Kitago, Angel Garcia de la Garza,  Robinson Kundert,  Andreas Luft,  Cathy Stinear,  Winston D. Byblow, Geert Kwakkel, John W. Krakauer.  bioRxiv. doi:

Two views on the cognitive brain (2021). David L. Barack and John W. Krakauer. Nature Reviews Neuroscience.

Distinct Processing of Sensory Prediction Error and Task Error during Motor Learning. Jonathan Tsay, Adrian M. Haith, Richard B. Ivry, Hyosub E. Kim. bioRxiv. doi:

Age-related increases in reaction time result from slower preparation, not delayed initiation. Robert M Hardwick, Alexander D. Forrence, Maria Gabriella Costello, Kathy Zackowski, Adrian M Haith. bioRxiv. doi:

Representation in Cognitive Science by Nicholas Shea: But Is It Thinking? The Philosophy of Representation Meets Systems NeuroscienceJohn W. Krakauer. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Manuscript in press.

Did We Get Sensorimotor Adaptation Wrong? Implicit Adaptation as Direct Policy Updating Rather than Forward-Model-Based LearningAlkis M. Hadjiosif, John W. Krakauer, Adrian M. Haith. Journal of Neuroscience. March 2021, 41 (12) 2747-2761; DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2125-20.2021

Comparing a Novel Neuroanimation Experience to Conventional Therapy for High-Dose Intensive Upper-Limb Training in Subacute Stroke: The SMARTS2 Randomized Trial. John W. Krakauer, Tomoko Kitago, Jeff Goldsmith, et al. Neurorehabilitation and Neural RepairMarch 2021. doi:10.1177/2158244013503834

Competition between parallel sensorimotor learning systems. Scott T. Albert, Jihoon Jang, Adrian M. Haith, Gonzalo Lerner, Valeria Della-Maggiore, John W. Krakauer, Reza Shadmehr. bioRxiv 2020.12.01.406777; doi:

Postural control of arm and fingers through integration of movement commands. Scott T. Albert, Alkis M. Hadjiosif, Jihoon Jang, Andrew J. Zimnik, Demetris S. Soteropoulos, Stuart N. Baker, Mark M. Churchland, John W. Krakauer, Reza Shadmehr. eLife (February 11, 2020). doi: BioRxiv preprint here.

Time-dependent competition between habitual and goal-directed response preparation. Robert M. Hardwick, Alexander D. Forrence, John W. Krakauer, Adrian M. Haith. Nature Human Behavior (September 20, 2019). doi:10.1038/s41562-019-0725-0. Commentary. Supplementary Information. Data + analysis code.

What the proportional recovery rule is (and is not): methodological and statistical considerations (2019). Robinson Kundert, Jeff Goldsmith, Janne M. Veerbeek, John W. Krakauer, Andreas R. Luft. Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair (September 15, 2019). doi: 10.1177/1545968319872996

Practice induces a qualitative change in the memory representation for visuomotor learning (2019). David M. Huberdeau, John W. Krakauer, Adrian M. Haith. Journal of Neurophysiology (August 7, 2019). doi: BioRxiv preprint here.

No evidence for motor recovery-related cortical reorganization after stroke using resting-state fMRI. Meret Branscheidt, Naveed Ejaz, Jing Xu, Mario Widmer, Michelle D. Harran, Juan Camillo Cortés, Tomoko Kitago, Pablo Celnik, Carlos Hernandez-Castillo, Jörn Diedrichsen, Andreas Luft, John W. Krakauer. bioRxiv (June 26, 2019). doi:

Standardized measurement of quality of upper limb movement after stroke: consensus-based core recommendations from the Second Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable (2019). Gert Kwakkel, Erwin E.H. van Wegen, Jane H. Burridge, Carolee Winstein, Liesjet van Dokkum, Margit Alt Murphy, and John W. Krakauer, on behalf of the ADVISORY group. International Journal of Stroke (June 12, 2019). doi: 10.1177/1747493019873519

Differential post-stroke motor recovery in an arm versus hand muscle in the absence of motor evoked potentials (2019). Heidi M. Schambra, Jing Xu, Meret Branscheidt, Martin Lindquist, Jasim Uddin, Levke Steiner, Benjamin Hertler, Nathan Kim, Jessica Berard, Michelle D. Harran, Juan C. Cortes, Tomoko Kitago, Andreas Luft, John W. Krakauer, and Pablo Celnik. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair (June 6, 2019). doi:

The intelligent reflex (2019). John W. Krakauer. Philosophical Psychology (May 23, 2019). doi: 10.1080/09515089.2019.1607281.

Rethinking interhemispheric imbalance as a target for stroke neurorehabilitation (2019). Jing Xu, Meret Branscheidt, Heidi Schambra, Levke Steiner, Mario Widmer, Jörn Diedrichsen, Jeff Goldsmith, Martin Lindquist, Tomoko Kitago, Andreas Luft, John W. Krakauer, Pablo Celnik, and the SMARTS Study Group. Annals of Neurology (in press).

Movement imitation via an abstract trajectory representation in dorsal premotor cortex (2019). Aaron L. Wong, Steven A. Jax, Louisa L. Smith, Laurel J. Buxbaum, and John W. Krakauer. Journal of Neuroscience (April 24, 2019). doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2597-18.2019. bioRxiv preprint here.

Can patients with cerebellar disease switch learning mechanisms to reduce their adaptation deficits? (2019). Aaron L. Wong, Cherie L. Marvel, Jordan A. Taylor, John W. Krakauer. Brain (January 28, 2019). doi:10.1093/brain/awy334. bioRxiv preprint here, and commentary here.

A non-task-oriented approach based on high-dose playful movement exploration for rehabilitation of the upper limb early after stroke: A proposal (2018). John W. Krakauer and Juan Camilo Cortés. NeuroRehabilitation, July 24, 2018. DOI: 10.3233/NRE-172411

Movement Repetition Facilitates Response Preparation (2018). Firas Mawase, Daniel Lopez, Pablo A. Celnik, Adrian M. Haith. Cell Reports (July 24, 2018). 24(4):801-808.

Evidence for a subcortical origin of mirror movements after stroke: a longitudinal study (2018). Naveed Ejaz, Jing Xu, Meret Branscheidt, Benjamin Hertler, Heidi Schambra, Mario Widmer, Andreia V. Faria, Michelle D. Harran, Juan C. Cortes, Nathan Kim, Pablo A. Celnik, Andreas R. Luft, John W. Krakauer, and Jörn Diedrichsen. Brain (January 31, 2018). doi:10.1093/brain/awx384

Modeling motor learning using heteroskedastic functional principal components analysis (2018). Daniel Backenroth, Jeff Goldsmith, Michelle D. Harran, Juan C. Cortes, John W. Krakauer, and Tomoko Kitago. Journal of the American Statistical Association (published online: September 4, 2017). doi:10.1080/01621459.2017.1379403

Reaction times can reflect habits rather than computations (2017). Aaron L. Wong, Jeff Goldsmith, Alexander D. Forrence, Adrian M. Haith, and John W. Krakauer. eLife (July 28, 2017). doi:10.7554/eLife.28075

Separable systems for recovery of finger strength and control after stroke (2017). Jing Xu, Naveed Ejaz, Benjamin Hertler, Meret Branscheidt, Mario Widmer, Andreia V. Faria, Michelle D. Harran, Juan C. Cortes, Nathan Kim, Pablo A. Celnik, Tomoko Kitago, Andreas R. Luft, John W. Krakauer, and Jörn Diedrichsen. Journal of Neurophysiology (May 31, 2017). doi:10.1152/jn.00123.2017

The cerebellum does more than sensory-prediction-error-based learning in sensorimotor adaptation tasks (2017). Peter A. Butcher, Richard B. Ivry, Sheng-Han Kuo, David Rydz, John W. Krakauer, and Jordan A. Taylor. Journal of Neurophysiology (June 21, 2017). doi:10.1152/jn.00451.2017

Agreed definitions and a shared vision for new standards in stroke recovery research: The Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable taskforce (2017). Bernhardt J, Hayward KS, Kwakkel G, Ward NS, Wolf SL, Borschmann K, Krakauer JW, Boyd LA, Carmichael ST, Corbett D, Cramer SC. International Journal of Stroke, April 28, 2017. DOI: 10.1177/1747493017711816

A short and distinct time window for recovery of arm motor control early after stroke revealed with a global measure of trajectory kinematics (2017). Juan C. Cortes, Jeff Goldsmith, Michelle D. Harran, Jing Xu, Nathan Kim, Heidi Schambra, Andreas R. Luft, Pablo Celnik, John W. Krakauer, Tomoko Kitago. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair (March 16, 2017) DOI: 10.1177/1545968317697034.

Standardized measurement of sensorimotor recovery in stroke trials: Consensus-based core recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable (2017). Kwakkel G, Lannin NA, Borschmann K, English C, Ali M, Churilov L, Saposnik G, Winstein C, van Wegen EEH, Wolf SL, Krakauer JW, Bernhardt J. International Journal of Stroke, March 10, 2017. DOI: 10.1177/1747493017711813

Motor planning flexibly optimizes performance under uncertainty about task goals (2017). Aaron L. Wong, Adrian M. Haith. Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14624.

Motor Learning In Stroke: Trained Patients are Not Equal to Untrained Patients with Less Impairment (2016). Robert M. Hardwick, Vikram A. Rajan, Amy J. Bastian, John W. Krakauer, and Pablo A. Celnik. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair (October 27, 2016). DOI: 10.1177/1545968316675432

A motor planning stage represents the shape of upcoming movement trajectories (2016). Aaron L. Wong, Jeff Goldsmith, John W. Krakauer. Journal of Neurophysiology (April 20, 2016). DOI:10.1152/jn.01064.2015.

Independence of movement preparation and movement initiation (2016). Adrian M. Haith, Jina Pakpoor, and John W. Krakauer. Journal of Neuroscience (March 9, 2016). 36(10):3007-3015. Journal Club Commentary + Our Response.

Paradoxical motor recovery from a first stroke by inducing a second stroke: re-opening a post-ischemic sensitive period (2016). Steven R. Zeiler, Robert Hubbard, Ellen M. Gibson, Tony Zheng, Kwan Ng, Richard O’Brien, and John W. Krakauer. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair (September 2016). DOI: 10.1177/1545968315624783.

Fluoxetine maintains a state of heightened responsiveness to motor training early after stroke in a mouse model (2015). Kwan Ng, Ellen M. Gibson, Robert Hubbard, Juemin Yang, Brian Caffo, Richard O’Brien, John W. Krakauer, and Steven R. Zeiler. Stroke (August 20, 2015) 2015;46:00-00. DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.010471.

Robotic therapy for chronic stroke: general recovery of impairment or improved task-specific skill? (2015). Tomoko Kitago, Jeff Goldsmith, Michelle Harran, Leslie Kane, Jessica Berard, Sylvia Huang, Sophia Ryan, Pietro Mazzoni, John W. Krakauer, and Vincent Huang. Journal of Neurophysiology  (July 15, 2015). doi:10.1152/jn.00336.2015.

The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke (2015). Heidi M. Schambra, R. Todd Ogden, Isis Martínez-Hernández, Xuejing Lin, Y. Brenda Chang, Asif Rahman, Dylan Edwards, and John W. Krakauer. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience (September 1, 2015), doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00335.

Formation of a long-term memory for visuomotor adaptation following only a few trials of practice (2015). Huberdeau DM, Haith AM, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neurophysiology (August 1, 2015) 114: 969–977. doi:10.1152/jn.00369.2015.

Explicit knowledge enhances motor vigor and performance: motivation versus practice in sequence tasks (2015). Wong A, Lindquist M, Haith A, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neurophysiology (July 1, 2015) 114: 219-232. doi:10.1152/jn.00218.2015.

Persistent residual errors in motor adaptation tasks: Reversion to baseline and exploratory escape (2015). Vaswani, Pavan A., Lior Shmuelof, Adrian M. Haith, Raymond J. Delnicki, Vincent S. Huang, Pietro Mazzoni, Reza Shadmehr, and John W. Krakauer. The Journal of Neuroscience 35, no. 17 (April 29, 2015): 6969–77.

On tests of activation map dimensionality for fMRI studies of learning (2015). J Yang, L Shmuelof, L Xiao, JW Krakauer, & Brian Caffo. Frontiers in Neuroscience.

The influence of movement preparation time on the expression of visuomotor learning and savings (2015). AM Haith, DM Huberdeau, & JW Krakauer. The Journal of Neuroscience (2015) 35(13):5109-5117.

Hedging your bets: Intermediate movements as optimal behavior in the context of an incomplete decision (2015). AM Haith, DM Huberdeau, & JW Krakauer. PLOS Computational Biology (March 30th 2015), doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004171.

A Comparison of Two Methods for MRI Classification of At-Risk Tissue and Core Infarction (2014). Leigh, Richard, Victor Cruz Urrutia, Rafael H. Llinas, Rebecca F. Gottesman, John W. Krakauer, and Argye E. Hillis. Frontiers in Neurology 5 (2014): 155. doi:10.3389/fneur.2014.00155.

The Neural Correlates of Learned Motor Acuity (2014). Shmuelof, Lior, Juemin Yang, Brian Caffo, Pietro Mazzoni, and John W. Krakauer. Journal of Neurophysiology 112, no. 4 (August 15, 2014): 971–80. doi:10.1152/jn.00897.2013.

Pretreatment Blood–Brain Barrier Damage and Post-Treatment Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients Receiving Intravenous Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator (2014). Richard Leigh, Shyian S. Jen, Argye E. Hillis, John W. Krakauer, and Peter B. Barker on behalf of the STIR and VISTA Imaging Investigators. Stroke, May 15, 2014, STROKEAHA.114.005249. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005249.

Explicit and Implicit Contributions to Learning in a Sensorimotor Adaptation Task (2014). Taylor, Jordan A., John W. Krakauer, and Richard B. Ivry. The Journal of Neuroscience 34, no. 8 (February 19, 2014): 3023–3032. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3619-13.2014.

Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts (2013). Stanley J, Krakauer JW. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7:503. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00503. 2013 Aug 29.

Unlearning versus savings in visuomotor adaptation: comparing effects of washout, passage of time, and removal errors on motor memory (2013). Kitago T, Ryan SL, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW and Haith AM (2013). Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7:307. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00307.

Corticospinal excitability is enhanced after visuomotor adaptation and depends on learning rather than performance or error (2013). Bagce HF, Saleh S, Adamovich SV, Krakauer JW, Tunik E. J. Neurophysiol. 2013 Feb;109(4):1097-106. doi: 10.1152/jn.00304.2012. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Medial Premotor Cortex Shows a Reduction in Inhibitory Markers and Mediates Recovery in a Mouse Model of Focal Stroke (2013). Zeiler SR, Gibson EM, Hoesch RE, Li MY, Worley PF, O’Brien RJ, Krakauer JW. Stroke. 2013;44:483-489, published online before print January 15 2013,doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.676940.

Overcoming motor “forgetting” through reinforcement of learned actions (2012). Shmuelof L, Huang VS, Haith AM, Delnicki RJ, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. J Neurosci. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2184-12.2012. 2012 Oct 17.

Improvement After Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: Recovery of Normal Motor Control or Task-Specific Compensation? (2012). Kitago T, Liang J, Huang VS, Hayes S, Simon P, Tenteromano L, Lazar RM, Marshall RS, Mazzoni P, Lennihan L, Krakauer JW. Neuroreahbil Neural Repair doi: 10.1177/1545968312452631. 2012 July 13.

Two Distinct Ipsilateral Cortical Representations for Individuated Finger Movements (2012). Diedrichsen J, Wiestler T, Krakauer JW. Cereb. Cortex doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs120. 2012 May 17.

How is a motor skill learned? Change and invariance at the levels of task success and trajectory control (2012). Shmuelof L, Krakauer JW, Mazzoni P. J Neurophysiol. 2012 Jul;108(2):578-94. Epub 2012 Apr 18.

Generalization and multirate models of motor adaptation (2012). Tanaka H, Krakauer JW, Sejnowski TJ. Neural Comput. 2012 Apr;24(4):939-66. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Prediction of motor recovery using initial impairment and fMRI 48 h poststroke (2011). Zarahn E, Alon L, Ryan SL, Lazar RM, Vry MS, Weiller C, Marshall RS, Krakauer JW. Cereb Cortex. 2011 Dec;21(12):2712-21. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Rethinking motor learning and savings in adaptation paradigms: model-free memory for successful actions combines with internal models (2011). Huang VS, Haith AM, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Neuron. 2011 May 26;70(4):787-801.

Probing for hemispheric specialization for motor skill learning: a transcranial direct current stimulation study (2011).  Schambra HM, Abe M, Luckenbaugh DA, Reis J, Krakauer JW, Cohen LG. J Neurophysiol. 2011 Aug;106(2):652-61. Epub 2011 May 25.

Learning not to generalize: modular adaptation of visuomotor gain (2010). Pearson TS, Krakauer JW, Mazzoni P. Journal of Neurophysiology. 103: 2938-2952. Read Comment.

Compensatory motor control after stroke: an alternative joint strategy for object-dependent shaping of hand posture (2010). Raghavan P, Santello M, Gordon AM, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neurophysiology. 103: 3034-3043.

Improvement in aphasia scores after stroke is well predicted by initial severity (2010). Lazar RM, Minzer B, Antoniello D, Festa JR, Krakauer JW, Marshall RS. Stroke. 41:1485–1488. Read Comment.

Adaptation to visuomotor rotation through interaction between posterior parietal and motor cortical areas (2009). Tanaka H, Sejnowski TJ, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neurophysiology, 102: 2921-32

Early imaging correlates of subsequent motor recovery after stroke (2009). Marshall RS, Zarahn E, Minzer B, Alon L, Lazar RM, Krakauer JW. Annals of Neurology, 65: 596-602.

Noninvasive cortical stimulation enhances motor skill acquisition over multiple days through an effect on consolidation (2009). Reis J, Schambra HM, Cohen LH, Buch ER, Fritsch B, Zarahn E, Celnik PA, Krakauer JW. PNAS. February; 106(5): 1590-5.

Learning of a sequential motor skill comprises explicit and implicit components that consolidate differently. (2009). Ghilardi MF, Moisello C, Silvestri G, Ghez C, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neurophysiology. May; 101: 2218-2229.

Explaining savings for visuomotor adaptation: Linear time-invariant state-space models are not sufficient (2008). Zarahn E, Weston GD, Liang J, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neurophysiology. July; 100: 2357-2548.

Ipsilateral motor dysfunction from unilateral stroke: Implications for the functional neuroanatomy of hemiparesis (2008). Noskin O, Krakauer JW, Lazar RM, Festa JR, Handy C, O’Brien KA, Marshall RS. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. April; 79(4): 401-6.

Inter-individual variability in the capacity for motor recovery after ischemic stroke (2008). Prabhakaran, S, Zarahn, E, Riley, C, Speizer, A, Chong JY, Lazar, RM, Marshall, RS, Krakauer, JW. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. Jan-Feb; 22(1): 64-71.

Why don’t we move faster? Parkinson’s disease, movement vigor, and implicit motivation (2007). Mazzoni P, Hristova A, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neuroscience. July; 27(27):7105-16.
Read Comment.

Sensory prediction errors drive cerebellum-dependent adaptation of reaching (2007). Tseng YW, Diedrichsen J, Krakauer JW, Shadmehr R, Bastian AJ. Journal of Neurophysiology. July; 98(1):54-62. Epub 2007 May 16.

Generalization of Motor Learning Depends on the History of Prior Action (2006). Krakauer JW, Mazzoni P, Ghazizadeh, A., Ravindran, R., Shadmehr, R. PLoS Biology. October; 4(10): e316.

Learning New Movements Depends on the Statistics of Your Prior Actions (2006). Inman, Mason. PLoS Biology. October; 4(10): e354.

An Optimization Principle for Determining Movement Duration (2006). Tanaka H, Krakauer JW, Qian N. Journal of Neurophysiology. June; 95(6): 3875-86.

Impaired Anticipatory Control of Fingertip Forces in Patients with a Pure Motor or Sensorimotor Lacunar Syndrome (2006). Raghavan P, Krakauer JW, Gordon AM. Brain. June; 129(Pt 6): 1415-25.

An Implicit Plan Overrides an Explicit Strategy during Visuomotor Adaptation (2006). Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neuroscience. April 5; 26(14): 3642-5.

Hemodynamic Impairment as a Stimulus for Functional Brain Reorganization (2006). Marshall RS, Krakauer JW, Matejovsky T, Zarahn E, Barnes A, Lazar RM, Hirsch J. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Jan 18; 1-7.

Patterns of Impairment in Digit Independence after Subcortical Stroke (2006). Raghavan P, Petra E, Krakauer JW, Gordon AM. Journal of Neurophysiology. January; 95(1): 369-78.

A New Approach to Spatial Covariance Modeling of Functional Brain Imaging Data: Ordinal Trend Analysis (2005). Habeck C, Krakauer JW, Ghez C, Sackeim HA, Eidelberg D, Stern Y, Moeller JR. Neural Computation. July; 17(7): 1602-45.

Adaptation to Visuomotor Transformations: Consolidation, Interference, and Forgetting (2005). Krakauer JW, Ghez C, Ghilardi MF. Journal of Neuroscience. January 12; 25(2): 473-8.

Hypoperfusion without Stroke Alters Motor Activation in the Opposite Hemisphere (2004). Krakauer JW, Radoeva BA, Zarahn E, Wydra J, Lazar RM, Hirsch J, Marshall RS. Annals of Neurology. December; 56(6): 796-802.

Differential Cortical and Subcortical Activations in Learning Rotations and Gains for Reaching: A PET Study (2004). Krakauer JW, Ghilardi MF, Mentis M, Barnes A, Veytsman M, Eidelberg D, Ghez C. Journal of Neurophysiology. February; 91: 924-933.

Reversible Leukoencephalopathy Associated with Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (2004). Oh U, Gupta R, Krakauer JW, Khandji AG, Chin SS, Elkind MSV. Neurology. 62: 994-97.

Evolution of Cortical Activation During Recovery From Corticospinal Tract Infarction (2000). Marshall RS, Perera GM, Lazar RM, Krakauer JW, Constantine RC, DeLaPaz RL. Stroke. March; 31(3): 656-61.

Learning of Visuomotor Transformations for Vectorial Planning of Reaching Trajectories (2000). Krakauer JW, Pine ZM, Ghilardi MF, Ghez C. Journal of Neuroscience. December; 20(23): 8916-24.

Independent Learning of Internal Models for Kinematic and Dynamic Control of Reaching (1999). Krakauer JW, Ghilardi MF, Ghez C. Nature Neuroscience. November; 2(11): 1026-31.

Stimulus Context in Hemineglect (1998). Marshall RS, Lazar RM, Krakauer JW, Sharma R. Brain. October; 121(part 10): 2003-10.

Learning of Scaling Factors and Reference Axes for Reaching Movements (1996). Pine ZM, Krakauer JW, Gordon J, Ghez C. Neuroreport. October 2; 7(14): 2357-61.



Multiple Reversible Episodes of Subcortical Ischemia Following Postcoital Middle Cerebral Artery Dissection (2006). Prabhakaran S, Krakauer JW. Archives of Neurology. June; 63(6): 891-3.

Bilateral Top of Carotid Occlusion Presenting as Basilar Thrombosis (2005). Liberato B, Harel NY, Krakauer JW. Cerebrovascular Disease. 19(5): 343-4.

Anti-Yo-Associated Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration in a with Adenocarcinoma of Unknown Origin (1996). Krakauer JW, Balmaceda C, Gluck JT, Posner JB, Fetell MR, Dalmau J. Neurology. May; 46(5): 1486-7.



The relationship between habits and skills in humans. Yue Du, John W. Krakauer, Adrian M. Haith (2021). Trends in Cognitive Sciences.

A theory for curing the diseases of modernity (2020). John W. Krakauer. [Review of Book What Is Health? Allostasis and the Evolution of Human Design by P. Sterling]. Current Biology, 30, R1-R5.

 The explicit/implicit distinction in studies of visuomotor learning (2020). Alkis M. Hadjiosif and John W. Krakauer.  European Journal of Neuroscience. DOI: 10.1111/ejn.14984

The continued need for scientific monographs (2020)John W. Krakauer. Experimental Brain Research.

Why are sequence representations in primary motor cortex so elusive? (2019). Aaron L. Wong and John W. Krakauer. Neuron. DOI:

Motor Learning (2019). John W. Krakauer, Alkis M. Hadjiosif, Jing Xu, Aaron L. Wong, Adrian M. Haith. Comprehensive Physiology 9:613-663.

The multiple effects of practice: skill, habit and reduced cognitive load (2018). Adrian M. Haith and John W. Krakauer. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences.

In search of the golden skill (2017). Krakauer JW. Progress in Brain Research, March 17, 2017. doi:10.1016/bs.pbr.2017.02.011

Neuroscience needs behavior: correcting a reductionist bias (2017). Krakauer JW, Ghazanfar AA, Gomez-Marin A, MacIver MA, Poeppel D. Neuron, 93:480:490.


Unsupervised Thinking
Evolutionary Psychiatry Newsletter
The Atlantic
Scientific American
Culture and Cognition Reading Group
The Spike

The basal ganglia: from motor commands to the control of vigor (2016). Dudman JT, Krakauer JW. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 37:158-166.

Computational neurorehabilitation: modeling plasticity and learning to predict recovery (2016). Reinkensmeyer DJ, Burdet E, Casadio M, Krakauer JW, Kwakkel G, Lang CE, Swinnen SP, Ward NS, and Shweighofer N. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 13:42.

The Proportional Recovery Rule for Stroke Revisited (2015). Krakauer JW and Marshall RS. Annals of Neurology, 78(6):845-847.

Dual-Process Decomposition in Human Sensorimotor Adaptation (2015). Huberdeau DM, Krakauer JW, and Haith AM. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 33:71-77.

The Uses and Interpretations of the Motor-Evoked Potential for Understanding Behaviour (2015). Bestmann, Sven, and John W. Krakauer. Experimental Brain Research, January 7, 2015, 1–11. doi:10.1007/s00221-014-4183-7.

The Future of Stroke Treatment: Bringing Evaluation of Behavior Back to Stroke Neurology (2014). Krakauer JW, and Hillis AE. JAMA Neurology, October 6, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.2343.

Recent Insights into Perceptual and Motor Skill Learning (2014). Shmuelof, Lior, and John W. Krakauer. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8 (2014): 683. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00683.

MRI-Guided Selection of Patients for Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke (2014). Leigh, Richard, and John W. Krakauer. Current Opinion in Neurology, June 2014, 1. doi:10.1097/WCO.0000000000000110.

Motor Planning (2014). Wong, Aaron L., Adrian M. Haith, and John W. Krakauer. The Neuroscientist, June 30, 2014, 1073858414541484. doi:10.1177/1073858414541484.

Motor Learning: The Great Rate Debate (2014). Haith, Adrian M., and John W. Krakauer. Current Biology 24, no. 10 (May 19, 2014): R386–R388. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.077.

The interaction between training and plasticity in the poststroke brain (2013). Zeiler SR and Krakauer JW. Curr Opin Neurol. 2013 Oct 16. Epub ahead of print.

Motor learning principles for neurorehabilitation (2013). Kitago T and Krakauer JW. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Barnes MP and Good DC (Eds). 3rd ser. 110 (2013): 93-103.

Theoretical Models of Motor Control and Motor Learning (2013). Haith AM and Krakauer JW. In: Gollhofer A, Taube W, Bo Nielsen J, (Eds). The Routledge Handbook of Motor Control and Motor Learning. 7-28. Routledge, London

Model-based and model-free mechanisms of human motor learning (2013). Haith AM and Krakauer JW. In: Progress in Motor Control VII: Neural Computational and Dynamic Approaches. Richardson MJ, Riley MA, Shockley K (Eds.). 1-21.

Getting neurorehabilitation right: what can be learned from animal models (2012)? Krakauer JW, Carmichael ST, Corbett D, Wittenberg GF. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012 Oct;26(8):923-31. Epub 2012 Mar 30.

Are we ready for a natural history of motor learning? (2011). L Shmuelof and JW Krakauer. Neuron. Nov; 72(3):469-76

Human sensorimotor learning: adaptation, skill, and beyond (2011). JW Krakauer and P Mazzoni. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. Aug; 21(4):636-44

Neurological principles and rehabilitation of action disorders: common clinical deficits (2011). Sathian K, Buxbaum LJ, Cohen LG, Krakauer JW, Lang CE, Corbetta M, Fitzpatrick SM. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2011 Jun;25(5 Suppl):21S-32S. Review.

Error correction, sensory prediction, and adaptation in motor control (2010). R Shadmehr, MA Smith, and JW Krakauer. Annual Reviews of Neuroscience. June, Vol. 33:89-108.

Losing control: Brain vs spinal cord (2010). Kitago T, Krakauer JW. Neurology. Apr 20;74(16):1250-1.

Inside the brain of an elite athlete: the neural processes that support high achievement in sports (2009). Yarrow K, Brown P, Krakauer JW. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 10: 585-596.

Robotic neurorehabilitation: a computational motor learning perspective (2009). Huang VS, Krakauer JW. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 6(5).

Motor Learning and Consolidation: The Case of Visuomotor Rotation (2009). Krakauer JW. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 629: 405-21.

Consensus: Can transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation enhance motor learning and memory formation? (2008). Reis J, Robertson E, Krakauer JW, Rothwell J, Marshall L, Gerloff C, Wassermann E, Pascual-Leone A, Hummel F, Celnik PA, Classen J, Floel A, Ziemann U, Paulus W, Siebner HR, Born J, Cohen LG. Brain Stimulation. Oct; 1(4): 363–369. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2008.08.001

A Computational Neuroanatomy for Motor Control (2008). Shadmehr R., Krakauer JW. Experimental Brain Research. March; 185(3): 359-381.

Towards a Computational Neuropsychology of Action (2007). Krakauer JW, Shadmehr R. Progress in Brain Research. 165: 383-394

Avoiding Performance and Task Confounds: Multimodal Investigation of Brain Reorganization After Stroke Rehabilitation (2007). Krakauer JW. Experimental Neurology. April; 204(2): 491-5.

Stroke and statistics of the aspirin/clopidogrel secondary prevention trials (2007). Howard G, McClure LA, Krakauer JW, Coffey CS. Current Opinion in Neurology. Feb; 20(1) 71-7.

The complex dynamics of stroke onset and progression (2007). Krakauer JW. Current Opinion in Neurology. Feb; 20(1): 47-50.

Motor Learning: Its Relevance to Stroke Recovery and Neurorehabilitation (2006). Krakauer JW. Current Opinion in Neurology. February; 19(1): 84-90.

Consolidation of Motor Memory (2006) Krakauer JW, Shadmehr R. Trends in Neuroscience. January; 29(1): 58-64.

Arm Function after Stroke: From Physiology to Recovery (2005). Krakauer JW. Seminars in Neurology. December; 25(4): 384-95.

Functional Imaging of Motor Recovery after Stroke: Remaining Challenges (2004). Krakauer JW. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports. January; 4(1): 42-6.



Minds met at neuron junction (2006). Krakauer JW. Times Higher Education.

As we lay dying (1997). Krakauer JW. The New Republic, Nov-17; 217, 20. p.42-5.



Broken Movement: The Neurobiology of Motor Recovery after Stroke (2017). John W. Krakauer and S. Thomas Carmichael. The MIT Press.


A road map for transforming stroke recovery (2018). Nick Ward. Brain (21 Septermber, 2018). doi:10.1093/brain/awy248


Preparation of Movement (2019). Adrian M. Haith and Sven Bestmann. The Cognitive Neurosciences, 6th edition. Eds. David Poeppel, George R. Mangun, Michael S. Gazzaniga.

The applicability of motor learning to neurorehabilitation (2015). Krakauer, J.W. In: Dietz, V. and Ward, N., ed. Oxford Textbook of Neurorehabilitation Oxford University Press. Chapter 7.

Motor control of the hand before and after stroke (2015). Xu, J., Haith, AM., Krakauer, J.W. In: Kansaku, K., Cohen, L.G., Birbaumer, N. ed.  Systems Neuroscience: From Laboratory to Clinical Practice. First Ed. Springer.

Predicting activities after stroke (2014). Gert Kwakkel, Boudewijn J. Kollen, and John W. Krakauer. Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation, 2nd Edition: Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 46.

Computational Neuroanatomy of Voluntary Motor Control (2009). Shadmehr R., Krakauer JW. In: Gazzaniga, M, ed. The Cognitive Neurosciences. Fourth Edition. The MIT press. 587-97

Functional Imaging of Motor Recovery after Stroke (2008). Krakauer JW. In: Schaller B, ed. State of the Art Imaging of Stroke. Nova Publishers. Chapter XI, pp. 327-345.

Motor Learning and Consolidation: The Case of Visuomotor Rotation (2008).
Krakauer JW. In: Sternad D, ed. Progress in Motor Control V: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Springer-Verlag. Chapter 8.

Ischemic Stroke: Mechanisms, Evaluation and Treatment (2007). Liberato B, Krakauer JW. In: Schapira, AHV, ed. Neurology: Basic and Clinical Neurosciences. Elsevier. Chapter 42, pp. 551-586.

Chapter 32: The Organization of Movement (2000). Ghez C, Krakauer JW. In:; Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM, eds Principles of Neural Science. Fourth Edition.

Chapter 38: Voluntary Movement (2000). Krakauer JW, Ghez C. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM, eds. Principles of Neural Science. Fourth Edition.

Spatial Representations and Internal Models of Limb Dynamics in Motor Learning (2000). Ghez C, Krakauer JW, Sainburg R, Ghilardi MF. In: Gazzaniga, M, ed. The Cognitive Neurosciences. Second Edition.


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